Juni In , Morgenthau proposed the Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, calling for Germany to lose the heavy industry, and the Ruhr area. It took over two months for General Clay to overcome continued resistance to the new directive JCS , but on July 10, , it was finally. was superseded by the more accommodative JCS The first American Military Government Commander in Germany was. Dwight D. Eisenhower (of World.
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Jsc in the US government stated that the purpose of this was the “ultimate destruction of the war potential of German forests”. So far, the Allies have not offered the opposition any serious encouragement. You will endeavor to obtain agreement in the Control Council to the making of this survey in the other zones of occupation and you will urge the coordination of the methods and results of this survey in the various zones. In your capacity as zone commander and as member of the Control Council you will take steps to provide for the equitable interzonal distribution and the movement of goods and services essential to the purposes set forth in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this directive.
You will require the Germans to use all means at their disposal to maximize agricultural output and to establish as rapidly as possible effective machinery for the collection and distribution of agricultural output. Other Allied objectives are to enforce the program of reparations and restitution, to provide relief for the benefit of countries devastated by Nazi aggression, and to ensure that prisoners of war and displaced persons of the United Nations are cared for and repatriated.
You will make special efforts to preserve from destruction and take under your control records, plans, books, documents, papers, files, and scientific, industrial and other information and data belonging to or controlled by the following:. All archives, monuments and museums of Nazi inception, or which are devoted to the perpetuation of German militarism, will be taken under your control and their properties held pending decision as to their disposition by the Control Council.
Churchill was not inclined to support the proposal, saying “England would be chained to a dead body. In particular you will promptly undertake surveys of supplies, equipment and resources in your zone. But the President and Mr. Hull told Roosevelt that the plan would inspire last-ditch resistance and cost thousands of American lives.
Germany was to be reduced to the standard of life it had known in Too many people here and in England hold the view that the German people as a whole are not responsible for what has taken place — that only a few Nazis are responsible.
Thus it should be brought home to the German people that the responsibility for the administration of such controls and for any break-downs in those controls will rest with themselves and German authorities.
The Morgenthau Plan for deliberate deindustrializa Subject to the provisions of paragraph 48 of this directive you are authorized to direct German authorities to maintain or reestablish nondiscriminatory systems of social insurance and poor relief. Views Read Edit View history. At the 11779 time he was directed to urge the Control Council to adopt these policies for enforcement throughout Germany.
JCS | gooldsteins view on the topics in the world
In the conduct of your occupation and administration you should be just but firm and aloof. Pending agreement in the Control Council you will assure that such measures as you consider necessary are taken in your own zone.
The German Economy Since the Surrenderp.
You will permit the self-organization of employees along democratic lines, subject to such safeguards as may be necessary to prevent the perpetuation of Nazi or militarist influence under any guise or the continuation of any group hostile to the objectives and operations of the occupying forces.
The Saar Protectorateanother important source of coal and industry for Germany, was likewise to be lost by the Germans. The Morgenthau Plan was seized upon by the Nazi German government, and used as part of propaganda efforts in the final months of the war which aimed to convince Germans to fight on.
The memorandum drafted by Churchill provided for “eliminating the warmaking industries in the Ruhr and the Saar Where the Potsdam agreement is silent on matters of policy dealt with in the directive, the latter continues to guide General Eisenhower in his administration of the United States Zone in Germany. By February 28,it was estimated that 4, German former prisoners of war, by General Dwight D.
As indicated in part 3 an International zone should be created containing the Ruhr and the surrounding industrial areas. Hilldring responded that it was better to have something than nothing and that it had been carefully drafted by Stimpson and his deputy McCloy to include loopholes.
A New Look at the Past. Fragments of Our Time: Lord Cherwell has been described as having “an almost pathological hatred for 7179 Germany, and an almost medieval desire for revenge was a part of his character”. The military forces immediately upon entry into the area shall destroy all plants and equipment which cannot be removed. Here the US military government of occupation in Germany was ordered to “take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany [or] designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy” and it was also ordered that starvation, disease and civil unrest were to be kept below such levels where they would pose a danger to the troops of occupation.
In extreme right-wing publications the Morgenthau Plan still plays this role today. Pending agreement in the Control Council you will impose 179 controls in your own zone.
You will search out, arrest, and hold, pending receipt by you of further instructions as to their disposition, Adolf Hitler, his chief Nazi associates, other war criminals and all persons who have participated in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes.
You will direct the German authorities to utilize large-landed estates and public lands in a manner which will facilitate the accommodation and settlement of Germans and others or increase agricultural output.
In jccs cases, the policies of the Potsdam agreement are controlling. Except 17799 may be necessary to carry out these objectives, you will take no steps a looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany, or b designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy. You will issue a proclamation continuing in force such proclamations, orders and instructions as may have heretofore been issued by Allied Commanders in your zone, subject to such changes as you may determine.
This means completely disarming the German Army and people including the removal or destruction of all war materialthe total destruction of the whole German armament industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries which are basic to military strength.
Subject to military security and the interests of the individuals concerned, you will release all persons found within your zone who have been detained or placed in custody on grounds of race, nationality, creed or political opinions and treat them as displaced persons.
It was replaced by JCSwhich instead stressed that “[a]n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany”. Germany had long been the industrial giant of Europe, and its poverty held back the general European recovery. A large proportion of operational civilian plants were dismantled and transported to the victorious nations, mainly France and Russia. During the signing of the plan, which coincided with the signing of a loan agreement, President Roosevelt proposed that they sign the plan first.
In November General Dwight D. Truman rescinded on “national security grounds”  JCSwhich had directed the US forces of occupation in Germany to “take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany”.
But such language was in large part rhetorical.